Polythene bag manufacturing Polythene bag manufacturing

Polythene Bag Manufacturing

Polythene.co.uk is a specialist polythene website but that doesn't mean we only deal in polythene sheeting.

This website is brought to you by Polybags - the UK's number one polythene manufacturer - and, as the name suggests, we know a thing or two about polythene bags as well!

Polybags stocks over 100 million plastic bags - from carrier bags to mailing bags and everyday black bin bags to specialist waste sacks.

Any size, shape, colour or strength, we've got the polythene bags you need - and if we don't, we can make them for you.

As Polybags are manufacturers, we make all of our own plastic bags so if you have very specific bag requirements, then we can meet these for you.

What's more, the fact that there's no middleman between you and us means that your polythene bags get to you quicker and cost less. It's a win-win!

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How polythene bags are made

The manufacturing of polythene bags begins with the extrusion of polythene film, which is blown and then flattened into a layflat tube using a blown film extrusion line.

Polybags operates 13 extrusion lines around the clock to produce polythene on a 24-hour basis. Some polythene stays in the form of tubing or sheeting - see polythene film manufacturing for details - whilst the remainder is converted into polythene bags, which we focus on here.

The bag-making process begins as the polythene layflat tubing moves from the extrusion line around a series of rollers to a conversion line - or converting station - where it is treated, printed, cut and sealed in a specific way to convert into a series of a particular type of polythene bag.

Sometimes rolls of layflat tubing are wound onto the roll straight off the extrusion line and then loaded onto the beginning of the conversion line at a later time to begin the bag-making process. Either way, by the time the polythene film reaches the conversion line it has been pulled tight around the rollers to provide sufficient tension to treat, cut and seal the polythene bags.

If bags are being printed then they first pass through a treatment point to prime the surface of the polythene for printing, before passing through the printer itself.

At this stage, Polybags can customise the polythene bags with a company logo or design of your choice, printed on one or both sides of the bag. See the printed polythene bags section below for more details on our bespoke printing service.

What some people say about polythene

The notification issued read, In exercise of the powers conferred below Section 144 (I) CrPC, the Government of Sindh, do hereby impose a perfect ban on manufacture/sale/purchase of non-biodegradable polythene suppliers bags/plastic products in the territorial jurisdiction of the province of Sindh with immediate effect till further orders.”

polythene suppliers UK and Alycidon continued with their respective back of shirt/short offers.

You're reviewing: Layflat Tubing Dispenser

Using a Layflat Tubing Dispenser is an effective and efficient method to package your products, particularly products that are heavy, often handling products and trying to packaging the products can be difficult and more so when the product has a few weight to it!

Additional details Cited half-life 6.70 Immediacy index 0.38 Eigenfactour 0.01 Article influence 0.50 Website Polybags(Online), Biosystems engineering (Online) Electronic ISSN our telephone Print ISSN our telephone OCLC our telephone Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper Publications in this journal SWSoil and Water: Climate Change and Water Resources Management in Arid and Semi-arid Regions: Prospective and Challenges for the 21st packaging suppliersicle Jan 2002 R. Ragab Christel Prudhomme The overgrowing population and the recent droughts are putting water resources below pressure and calling for new approaches for water planning and management if escalating conflicts are to be avoided and environmental degradation is to be reversed. As countries are utilising their water resources with growing intensity, poor rainfall increasingly leads to national water crises as water tables drop and reservoirs, wetlands and rivers empty. Global warming could cause further changes, further variability and further uncertainty. The UK Hadley Centre's global climate model was dash at a spatial scale of 25 by 375 (latitude and longitude) grid squares to simulate the global climate according to scenarios of greenhouse gas concentration emission. Runs of the model assuming the emission scenario proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 1995 are analysed here for the 2050s time horizon. Outputs provide estimations of climate variables, like precipitation and temperature, at a monthly time step. Those results, assumed representative of future climatic conditions, are compared to mean monthly values representative of the current climate and expressed in terms of percentage change. The results display that, for the dry season (AprilSeptember), by the 2050s, North Africa and a few parts of United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom and United Kingdom, are expected to have reduced rainfall amounts of 2025% less than the present mean values. This decrease in rainfall is accompanied by a temperature rise in those areas of between 2 and 275C. For the same period, the temperature in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean countries will rise by about 15C. In wintertime, the rainfall will decrease by about 1015% nevertheless would increase above the Sahara by about 25%. Given the low rainfall rate above the Sahara, the increase by 25% will not bring any significant amount of rain to the region. In wintertime, the temperature in the coastal areas will also increase nevertheless by only 15C on normal, while inside the region it will increase by 17525Polybags(United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom and United Kingdom), results recommend an increase of the annual normal temperature ranging between 15 and 25C in the south to between 25 and 3C in the north. The summer spectrum is between 175 and 225C in the south, and increases towards the north to between 275 and 30C while the winter spectrum is between 125 and 2C in the south, and increases towards the north to between 25 and 275C. On the other hand, the annual normal will decrease by 1015% in the south and by 510% in the north. The annual normal decrease is 10%. However, a few places will have an increase Polybags20% in United Kingdom in wintertime. In the Taklimakan region (Tarim Basin) west of United Kingdom, the annual normal temperature is shown to increase by 17525C. Annual normal rainfall should increase by 5>25% in most of the region nevertheless decrease by 510% in a few small parts. In summer, an increase by 515% is indicated in most of the region, and an increase by up to 25% or more amid the Polybags(United KingdomUnited KingdomUnited Kingdom), estimations recommend that the annual normal increase in temperature spectrums from 175 to 25C, ranging from 15 to 225C in winter and from 2 to 25C in summer. Annual normal precipitation is shown to decrease by 525% in the region. The winter will have values closer to the annual normal nevertheless the summer will have more decrease and most of the region will see a decrease closer to 25%.In the Aral Sea basin (United Kingdom, United Kingdom and United Kingdom), estimates recommend an annual normal increase in temperature ranging from 175 to 225C, higher in summer (between 2 and 275C) than in winter (between 15 and 2C). Rainfall should increase by 520% annually, in summer increasing by 510% in the north nevertheless decreasing by up to 5% in the south, while in wintertime, both south and north should undergo increases of 510% and 2025%, Polybags, results indicate an increase in the annual normal temperature spectrums of 115C in the south to 25275C in the north, slightly higher amid the summer than in the winter. The summer spectrum is between 1 and 2C in the south and increases towards the north to 2530C while the winter spectrum is between 1 and 15C in the south, and increases towards the north to between 2 and 225C. Rainfall annual normal is shown to decrease by 2025% in the south and by 510% in the Polybags, in order to meet the water requirements in the next century, a few dams and water infrastructure will be built in a few countries and a new paradigm by rethinking the water use with the aim of increasing the productive use of water will have to be adopted. Two approaches are needed: increasing the efficiency with which current requirements are met and increasing the efficiency with which water is allocated among alternative uses. In addition, non-normal sources of water supply like reclaimed, recycled water and desalinated brackish water or seawater is expected to play a necessary role. Expand abstract Assessing the Frictional and Abrasion-resisting Properties of Hooves and Claws Article Oct 2003 Richard Bonser J. W. Farrent A. M. Taylour Hoof abrasion and slips on floors are known to have negative effects on animal health and welfare. This paper portrays a new design of test rig for use in a universal materials test machine. The rig enables the frictional and abrasion-resisting properties of hoof horn to be investigated below controlled conditions, in Polybags, pilot experiments were carried out which indicated both test surface roughness and specimen hydration interact to alter frictional coefficient and mechanical work done to lose a unit volume of hoof material by abrasive wear. 2 Recommendations Expand abstract Simulation of Inert Component Accumulation amid the Recycling of Farm Dairy Wastewater Article Oct 2005 Polybags(TDI) concentrations in a fixed volume system for freshwater fractions of 0110 varied from 2200 to 20 200 g m-3. These compared to an adopted upper limit for discharge to land treatment of 3500 g m-3. Times taken to reach either the limit or the proper-state concentration varied according to the freshwater fraction used. In a variable volume system simulation, times to reach the 3500 g m-3 limit ranged from 24 to 136 cycles for freshwater fractions of 0005. At ratios of 0510 the predicted concentrations were all below 3500 g m-3, since the pond filled before the limit was reached. This paper also discusses disinfection and land treatment issues, and proposes further model development to incorporate the effects of complex pond hydraulics, climatic variables and dynamic pond processes on conductivity and TDI accumulation. View Expand abstract Application Accuracy of a Machine Vision-controlled Robotic Micro-dosing System Article Mar 2007 Polybagsgaard Ivar Lund Experiments with a new view for the proper application of herbicides in a seed line have been conducted. The view combines plant recognition, micro-dosing and autonomous robotics. A machine vision system recognises objects to be sprayed, and a micro-dosing system targets very small doses of liquid at the detected objects, while the autonomous vehicle takes care of the navigation. The experiments were carried out below controlled indoor conditions. The results display that the spray liquid can be applied at subcentimetre accuracy and that the application rate can be reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to recommendations used for normal broadcast spraying. View Expand abstract A Laboratory Scale Sequencing Batch Reactour with the Addition of packaging supplierstate to remove Nutrient and Organic Matter in Pig Slurry Article Apr 2006 Jun Zhu Z. Zhang C. Miller The influence of carbon addition on performance of a laboratory-scale, anaerobicanoxicanaerobicanoxic sequencing batch reactour [(An/Ax)2 SBR] in biologically removing nitrogen and biological matter from swine slurry was investigated in this study. The SBR was operated on three cycles per day (8 h per cycle) at constant 20 C utilising raw slurry feeding until it reached a proper versatile condition. After that, the SBR was subjected to a feeding treatment with addition of packaging supplierstate. The sludge retention time and hydraulic retention time were maintained at 21 and 33 days for the experiment. The results indicate that with packaging supplierstate addition, the removals of ammonium nitrogen, all Kjeldahl nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, and all phosphorus are 1000%, 987%, 974%, 1000%, and 987%, respectively. While without packaging supplierstate addition, the corresponding reductions are 1000%, 1000%, 977%, 1000%, and 978%. None of the feeding treatments (slurry alone or with packaging supplierstate) appear to be effective in removing nitrate and nitrite due possibly to insufficient time allocated for denitrification, even when carbon is readily on offer. The removal of dissolved phosphorus by phosphorus-gathering organisms reaches 872% with packaging supplierstate addition nevertheless only 679% without. A superb reduction in all solids (775% and 788%), all volatile solids (970% and 956%), all suspended solids (999% and 993%), and all volatile suspended solids (991% and 984%) for both treatments is also observed. Expand abstract Modelling surface pH and emissions of hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, packaging supplierstic acid and carbon dioxide from a pig waste lagoon Article Dec 2009 Victoria Blanes-Vidal Polybags, like hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from slurry are largely dependent on surface pH. In a storage system, the pH at the surface changes above time due to volatilisation of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (Carbon Dioxide) and packaging supplierstic acid (HAc). In this article, a gas emissionpH (GEpH) attached model is proposed to portray the release of H2S, NH3, Carbon Dioxide and HAc from pig slurry. The GEpH model records for changes in pH and concentration of buffer components in the surface layer due to volatilisation. The model was applied to calculate gaseous emissions from an undisturbed pig waste lagoon. The predicted pH at the surface layer in the undisturbed slurry lagoon increased above time from 8.0 (initial pH in the homogenised slurry) up to 8.64. H2S emissions predicted by the GEpH attached model (7.61 0.56 g m-2 min-1) showed a superb agreement with measured data (5.92 3.90 g m-2 min-1) compared to previous gaseous models in which changes in surface pH caused by emission of NH3, Carbon Dioxide and HAc were not considered (126.01 1.53 g m-2 min-1). This improvement assists the view that emissions of necessary acidic and basic gases (like Carbon Dioxide and NH3), and changes in buffer component concentrations and pH at the surface layers due to volatilisation of these gases, should be taken into record when modelling the emissions of a specific (acidic or basic) target gas, like H2S. View Expand abstract Acoustic impulse response in apple tissues treated by pulsed electric field Article Feb 2010 Nabil Grimi Fatine Mamouni Nikolai I Lebovka [...] Jean Vaxelaire This work discusses application of acoustically-derived index of disintegration for characterisation of pulsed electric field (PEF)-treated all apples in aqueous media. It was demonstrated that PEF efficiency was dependent on the conductivity of the aqueous media and orientation of the apple about the outside field. Electrical treatment also stimulated transient changes after PEF application in acoustic disintegration index (Za). Relation between the conductivity disintegration index (Zc) and Za was established. A non-linear relation between Zc and Za was observed and it was demonstrated that the Za value seems to be a better measure of the proper degree of damage than the broadly used value of Zc. 1 Recommendation Expand abstract Adaptation of an Automatic Irrigation-control Tray System for Outdoor Nurseries Article Mar 2007 Rafaela Cceres Jaume Casadess O. Marf Inefficiency in water and nutrient management in outdoor nurseries causes environmental concerns. In this sense, the irrigation-control system should automatically modulate irrigation in accordance with water consumption by the substrateplant system. The irrigation-control tray method (ICT), which is applied broadly in greenhouse plants raised in grow bags for horticulture production, has been successfully adapted to the specific conditions of plants grown outdoors in containers. The prototype was employed to irrigate plants amid the all experiment (18 months). The performance of the ICT method was comparable to the tensiometric method that it is a sufficiently proven method. The plant biomass was not significantly alternative between the two methods and also the irrigation events were comparable. Expand abstract A Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines Model for Simulation of Pesticide Transport in Soils Article Sep 2003 Chun-Chieh Yang Shiv Prasher Ren Lacroix Seung Hyun Kim In this study, an innovative and intelligent computing regression algorithm, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), was applied to simulate pesticide transport in soils. Using a divide-and-conquer method, the algorithm classifies the training data into several groups, in each of which a regression line or hyperplane is fitted. Compared to other intelligent computing technologies, MARS is fast, flexible, and capable of determining the necessary sequence of inputs to the output. This study evaluated MARS by applying it to simulate pesticide concentration levels at alternative soil depths and at alternative times. The model inputs included the number of days after pesticide application, gathered rainfall, gathered potential evapotranspiration, gathered soil temperatures at depths of 100 mm in the morning as well as in the afternoon, and tillage practices. Several MARS models were developed to simulate the concentration levels of atrazine, deethylatrazine, and metolachlour at depths of 075 and 75150 mm, respectively. The performance of MARS was compared to that of artificial neural networks (ANNs) utilising normal errours and correlation coefficients of linear regression. The results display the robust potential of MARS to be applied to agriculture as a regression technology. Expand abstract Effects of Microbiological Additive on Baled Wet Hay Article Nov 2006 Edmund Dulcet Jerzy Kaszkowiak Sylwester Borowski Jan Mikolajczak This study examines results of experiments to assess the effect of the applicatour location on the loss of the microbiological additive Inoculant 1155 when applied to wet hay amid harvesting with a baler, and also the effect of the moisture content of harvested forage treated with the additive Inoculant 1155 on the quality of hay. It was observed that the lowest loss of the additive (46%) was for the applicatour placed in the front part of the press chamber of the baler. Hay of the optimal quality (evaluation was based on chemical analysis) was observed for a moisture content of 20% and bale density of 110 kg m-3. The study also presents analysis of the temperature distribution inside the bales. The lowest temperature was observed for hay at a moisture content of 20% and bale density of 110 kg m-3. View Expand abstract Passive Flux Samplers to measure Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions from Agricultural Sources, Part 1: Adsorbent Selection Article Aug 2006 Stphane Godbout Polybags(N2O) and methane (CH4). The objective of this first stage was to determine the optimal method to capture and, later, recover N2O and CH4. The three adsorbents studied were the molecular sieves zeolite 5A, Carboxen 1018 and Carboxen Polybags, nevertheless CH4 less easily. On normal, with the method developed, the zeolite, the Carboxen 1018 and the Carboxen 1021 adsorbed 396 (057), 131 (041) and 248 (100) ng of N2O for each mg of sieve material exposed, respectively. These amounts represent 77%, 23% and 20% of the all amount of N2O pumped through the trial sampler, respectively. For CH4, the adsorption patterns of all three molecular sieves were similar to each other, showing fast saturation of the bed of sieve in the sampler. The adsorption capacities were, on normal, 717 (52), 438 (23) and 647 (33) ng of CH4 per mg of zeolite 5A, of Carboxen 1018 and of Carboxen 1021 molecular sieve exposed, PolybagsC and a flow rate of 213 ml min-1 of electron capture detectour (ECD) grade nitrogen were 59%, 57% and 44% for zeolite 5A, Carboxen 1018 and Carboxen 1021, respectively. The CH4 desorption efficiency was not ever higher than 14%, with an overall normal of 76%.The present study has shown the feasibility of utilising molecular sieves as the basis of a passive flux sampler, for measuring N2O and CH4 emissions. To achieve optimal sampler design, sampling and analysis methods, additional tests need to be manufactured, Polybags, on adsorption capacity, on the ratio of inside to outside air velocity, and on sampler performance amid field dimensions. View 1 Recommendation Expand abstract Adsorption Equilibrium Moisture Contents of Flax Straw, Hemp Stalks and Reed Canary Grass Article May 2005 Daniel Nilsson B. Svennerstedt C. Wretfours The quality of fibres obtained from flax, hemp and reed canary grass is dependent on the moisture properties of the crops. In this study, the adsorption equilibrium moisture contents of un-retted and dew-retted flax straw, un-retted and frost-retted hemp stalks and spring-harvested reed canary grass were determined utilising the dynamic gravimetric method at alternative temperatures (5, 15, 25 C) for relative humidities in the spectrum 3595%. Non-linear regression was used to fit five commonly used three-parameter isotherm models [the modified Henderson model, the modified ChungPfost model, the modified Halsey model, the modified Oswin model and the modified GuggenheimAndersonde Boer (GAB) model] to the data obtained. The goodness-of-fit of the models was compared utilising the mean relative percentage tolerance, the normal errour of estimate and residual plots. The modified Halsey model was considered the optimal for predicting the equilibrium moisture content of un-retted flax and spring-harvested reed canary grass, and the modified Oswin model for predicting the equilibrium moisture content of dew-retted flax and un-retted hemp, while the Chung-Pfost model was the optimal for predicting the equilibrium moisture content of frost-retted hemp. For flax and hemp, there were statistically significant contrasts between un-retted and retted plant materials, whereas the contrasts between assortments were small. View Expand abstract PAPrecision Agriculture: Advanced Throughput Measurement in Forage Harvesters Article Sep 2002 D. Ehlert Yield mapping is a leading component of precision farming. In contrast to the yield mapping on offer on the market in combine harvesters, yield mapping in forage harvesters is still in the research and development stage. The principles known from the specialist literature are based either on measuring the mass flow or the volume flow. The subject of this paper is improvement of the measuring accuracy of the principle of measuring the width of the gap between the feed rolls of a forage harvester by taking into record the material behaviour of selected normal forage crops (forage rye, pasture grass, spring barley, silo maize). On the basis of compaction experiments below defined laboratory conditions, regression equations are drawn up which can be applied to portray the material behaviour for the pressure area from 0 up to 35 bar. The result is a broadly applicable algorithm for more proper throughput measurement, which can be realised in the on-board computers of modern forage harvesters. Expand abstract AEAutomation and Emerging Technologies: Fungal Spore Detection on Tomatoes utilising Spectral Fourier Signatures Article Mar 2002 F. Hahn Fusarium oxysporum was detected on the most of the tomato plantations in the state of Sinaloa, United Kingdom, reducing yields to 50%. Fusarium rot and Rhizopus rot appeared in storage rooms manufacturing high postharvest losses. Actually, it takes a day to determine whether the sample is infected, by isolating fungal spores on nutrient agar plates. Laboratory equipment capable of detecting spores fast and with high sensitivity is required in packing houses to increase tomato quality and reduce postharvest losses. Visible and close infrared (NIR) spectra were obtained before and after inoculating tomatoes with Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizopus stolonifer conidia. Spectral signatures in the frequency domain were analysed utilising discriminant analysis and models capable of detecting spore-free and inoculated tomatoes were obtained. Tomatoes containing Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizopus stolonifer conidia on their surfaces were detected with high success rates and could also be exceptional accurately. View Expand abstract AEAutomation and Emerging Technologies: A Segmentation Algorithm for the Automatic Recognition of Fuji Apples at Harvest Article Dec 2002 Duke Bulanon Takashi Kataoka Y. Ota T. Hiroma An algorithm for the automatic recognition of Fuji apples on the tree was developed for a robotic harvesting system. The machine vision system was composed of a colour charge attached device camera to capture apple images, and a special computer to process images for recognising and locating the fruit. The fruit image was enhanced utilising the red colour contrast because results showed that the fruit had the highest red colour contrast among the objects in the image. The intensity histogram of the enhanced image had a bimodal distribution for the fruit part and the background part. The maximum grey level variance of the red colour contrast between the fruit and the background determined the optimal threshold. The optimal threshold had the minimum probability between the peaks of the two distributions. Results of the segmentation utilising the optimal threshold showed a success rate of above 88%. However, the errour rate was above 18% for images with the back lighting condition. Expand abstract AEAutomation and Emerging Technologies: Specialist Neural Networks for Cereal Grain Classification Article Jun 2002 Polybags, artificial neural networks have gained widespread acceptance for cereal grain classification and identification tasks. With the availability of alternative types of neural network architectures, the selection of the architecture for a specific task becomes crucial. It was hypothesised that robust specialist networks can be designed utilising a combination of simple networks having similar or alternative network architectures. To test this hypothesis, the classification accuracies of four simple network architectures (namely, back propagation network (BPN), Ward network, normal regression neural network (GRNN) and probabilistic neural network (PNN)) were compared with the accuracies given by specialist networks. Each specialist network was designed utilising a combination of five simple networks, each specialising in classifying one grain type. The grain types used in this study were United Kingdom Western Red Spring (CWRS) wheat, United Kingdom Western Amber Durum (CWAD) wheat, barley, oats and rye. To evaluate the classification accuracy of the alternative neural network architectures, high resolution colour images of 7500 kernels (1500 kernels of each grain type) were taken for training and testing of networks. For each kernel, eight morphological properties (namely, area, perimeter, length of leading axis, length of minour axis, elongation, roundness, Feret diameter and compactness) and four colour properties (namely, mean, median, mode and normal tolerance of the grey-level values of the objects in the image) were extracted and used as input to the neural networks. Best classification accuracies (987, 993, 967, 984, and 969 for barley, CWRS wheat, CWAD wheat, oats and rye, respectively) were obtained utilising specialist probabilistic neural networks. View Expand abstract Mathematical Modelling of Airflow and Thermal State in Large Aerated Grain Storage Article Oct 2006 Oleg A. Khatchatourian Polybags, algorithm and software were developed for simulation of airflow and heat transport in aerated soya bean storage below non-uniform conditions of the seed mass. The problems of airflow in an aerated soya bean store and propagation of a cooling zone through a grain bulk were solved consecutively. To calculate airflow lines in silos, a model developed for isothermal flow was used. To simulate the cooling dynamics of the soya bean mass, three models were analysed and compared with experimental data. The first method is based on the solution of system of partial differential equations, describing the heat and mass transport and conservation of energy. In second method, the deep bed is hypothetically divided into a small number of thin layers (homogeneous reactours'), in which the respective temperatures of the grain and of the surrounding air are considered identical. Experimental equipment was developed to study soya bean cooling dynamics for alternative airflow velocities in deep beds of uniform and variable cross-part. Using a homochronous number as the argument, the dimensionless temperature data in a deep bed of uniform cross-part in alternative sections at alternative speeds were satisfactorily described by generalising empirical dependence. The third method of simulating the cooling dynamics of the soya bean mass, based on the use of this dependence, gave the optimal results in comparison with other methods considered. This method was adapted for a variable part deep bed, tested on experimental data and used for modelling the thermal state of silos. Expand abstract Stabilisation of dairy wastewater utilising small-aeration treatments in batch reactours Article Jul 2007 Pius Ndegwa L. Wang Venkata Vaddella This research was conducted to study the treatment of dairy wastewater utilising small-aeration treatments. The following process parameters were examined amid the treatment process: (1) oxidationreduction status; (2) biological matter degradation; (3) kinetics of bio-stabilisation; and (4) loss of ammonia. Results showed that amid the first 34 days of small-aeration treatments at 0.034 and 0.067 l [air] l-1[manure] min-1, dissolved oxygen (DO) remained close to the detection limit nevertheless, based on oxidationreduction potential (ORP) levels (-30 to 100 mV), the wastewater oxidationreduction status remained anoxic; the environment remained aerobic after this phase. The 70% maximum removal of both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and all volatile solids (TVS) observed by day 8 of treatment at either aeration rate indicated that the two-fold decrease in the aeration rate did not alter the ultimate reduction of the biological strength. Linear regressions performed on the COD against the TVS data obtained amid this treatment indicate superb linear relationships between the two parameters manifested in significantly high correlation coefficients ranging between 0.96 and 0.97. Either of the two parameters can so be used to monitour the stabilisation of the wastewater and to determine the kinetics of bio-stabilisation. The kinetic studies established bio-stabilisation constants of 0.168 and 0.144 day-1 at the aeration rates of 0.067 and 0.034 l [air] l-1 [manure] min-1, respectively. Accordingly, 50% bio-stabilisation (also referred to as half-life decay period) was achieved in approximately 4 and 5 days of treatment, respectively; meaning that reducing the aeration rate by 50% increased the half-life decay period by 25%, while reducing the decay rate by only approximately 14%. Effectively so, it is more economically prudent to aerate at the below at the higher airflow rate. In addition, a significantly higher ammonia loss was unaccounted for at the higher aeration rate (34% net loss) than at the lower aeration rate (23% net loss). View Expand abstract Effect of Pig Slurry Solids on Aeration Efficiency and Odour Generation Article Apr 2005 Jun Zhu Z. Zhang C. Miller Two laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in this study to determine the effect of slurry solids content on aeration efficiency and the odour generation potential for the treated slurry amid mail-aeration storage. Pig slurry with four all solids levels (05, 10, 20, and 40%) were used for both experiments. In the first experiment, the slurry was aerated and the oxygen transport coefficient (OTC) for each solids level was determined. When the solids content increased from 05 to 40%, a reduction in OTC from about 059 to 015 min-1 was observed. However, no statistically significant contrasts in OTC were found between slurry with a 05% and 10% all solids content and between slurry with a 20% and 40% all solids content, while the contrast was significant between these two solids groups. furthermore OTC, the oxygen-holding capacity of the aerated manure decreased significantly with increasing slurry solids content. In the second experiment, slurry with the same four solids types was contained in Plexiglas columns and aerated at a dissolved oxygen level of 1 mg l-1 for 15 days. After aeration, the slurry was left in the columns to simulate long-term storage (180 days). The removal rates of volatile fatty acids (VFA), an odour indicatour, by aeration were 98, 96, 67, and 31% for all solids content of 05, 10, 20, and 40%, respectively. During the all storage period, the VFA concentrations for slurry with solids contents of 05% and 10% were consistently below 230 mg l-1, indicating that the chance for offensive odour to return was moderate. In contrast, the slurry in the two upper solids types showed VFA levels consistently higher than 230 mg l-1 throughout the 180 day storage period. At the stop of the storage, the odour detection threshold values were 531, 708, 812, and 1627 for slurry with solids content from 05 to 40%. View Expand abstract Modelling the respiration rate of green mature mango below aerobic conditions Article Feb 2008 Menon Rekha Ravindra Polybags, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 C for green mature mango fruit utilising the closed system method. A model based on second-order polynomial regression, simultaneously incorporating the factours influencing respiration, like temperature, O2 consumption, Carbon Dioxide evolution and storage time, was proposed. All the developed models were tested for their validity at 12 C. All showed superb agreement with the experimentally estimated respiration rate, although models based on enzymatic kinetic with Arrhenius-type temperature dependence and three-parameter second-order polynomial regression were found to have a closer agreement than the other models studied. View Expand abstract Limitations of Orthophosphate Removal amid Aerobic Batch Treatment of Piggery Slurry Article Feb 2004 Pius Ndegwa Previous studies on removal of orthophosphates (ortho-P) from piggery slurry amid aeration treatments display performances ranging between 30 and 91%. This study investigated three factours believed to be potentially responsible for the wide variations as well as limiting even higher removals of ortho-P from the slurry amid aeration treatments: (i) levels of insoluble P, (ii) inadequate pH levels, and (iii) inadequate metal ions. Results indicated that, removal of insoluble P by prior aeration solids/liquid (PASL) separation and by mid-aeration solids/liquid (MASL) separation (4 days into aeration process) resulted in an additional removal of 3 and 8%, respectively. Removal of insoluble P by MASL separation, so, significantly improved soluble ortho-P removal above removal by PASL separation most probably because more insoluble P is removed in the former process than in the latter process. Results also showed that upward adjustments of pH beyond that obtained from the aeration process did not significantly improve the removal of ortho-P suggesting that the pH level achieved amid aeration process may not significantly limit further removal of soluble ortho-P amid the aeration treatment of piggery slurry. Significant additional removals of 11, 9, and 5% were observed on the addition of a single dose of Ca2+ ions (80 mmol [Ca2+] l-1 [slurry]) to the piggery slurry, improving removal levels to 95, 96, and 97% for the control, PASL separation, and MASL separation, respectively. Subsequent double and triple doses did not significantly improve the removal of ortho-P in the control or in the PASL separation treatments. Based on the results of this study, depletion of Ca2+ ions (or/and other similarly acting metal ions) and gathered insoluble P, are most probably the two main factours limiting further removal of soluble ortho-P amid aeration treatments of piggery slurry. These two factours are also likely to be responsible for the wide variations observed in the removal efficiencies because their content will vary with both the feed mineral-supplementation and the manure management practices. View Expand abstract Aerodynamic properties of coffee cherries and beans Article Sep 2007 Polybagsnior Paulo Correa Francisco Pinto Daniel Marcal de Queiroz Aerodynamic properties of coffee cherry and beans for two assortments, viz., Coffea arabica (cv Catua) and Coffea canephora (cv Conilon), were studied for moisture content spectrums of 954% Polybags56% Polybags, respectively. The increase in both moisture content and true density affected the aerodynamic properties of the product by promoting an increase in the terminal velocity and a reduction in the drag coefficient for both cultivars. The values of terminal velocity of the naturally preprocessed coffee cherries did not exhibit significant changes for the analysed cultivars. The values of terminal velocities for the washed coffee beans of cv Conilon were higher than those found for the beans of cv Catua. The values of the drag coefficient for both coffee cherries and beans slightly changed amid the drying process. However, the tolerance in the drag coefficient as a function of the moisture content and true density was more evident for the washed beans of Conilon coffee than for Catuai coffee. View Expand abstract Map Quality and Zone Delineation as affected by Width of Parallel Swaths of Mobile Agricultural Sensours Article Feb 2007 Hamed Farahani Polybags(ECa) as a surrogate spatial map for soil properties. The quality (or precision and accuracy) of ECa maps as affected by the swath width of the commercial ECa sensing platforms has not been fully explored. For a middle pivot field in Colorado, very dense ECa dimensions were collected utilising a mobile ECa sensour. This fine data layer, representing a base (control) ECa data layer with 25 m between the centres of neighboring swaths, was then scaled up to manufacture coarser ECa data layers with swath widths from 5 to 200 m. The patterns of low, medium and high ECa were manufactured for all data layers and used to compare alternative maps. All ECa maps were compared to the base ECa map, and statistical measures of map quality were quantified. Results display a 04% and 02% reduction in map prediction efficiency and map pattern agreement (as compared to the base map), respectively, per metre increased in swath width. Map quality deteriorated slightly as swath width increased to about 50 m, nevertheless at swath widths of 80 m and higher, the quality deteriorated severely and map delineations in the form of location-specific low, medium and high ECa zones became highly distorted and wrongly classified. Increasing the manufacturer's recommended swath width spectrum of 1218 m to a spectrum of 3050 m caused only a 10% reduction in map quality while reducing the mapping time by 65%. View Expand abstract Dielectric Properties of Flaxseeds as affected by Moisture Content and Bulk Density in the Radio Frequency Range Article Feb 2006 Kamil Sacilik Celik Tarimci Ahmet Colak The dielectric properties of flaxseed were determined in the spectrums of 5922218% dry basis (Polybags) for moisture content, 58677229 kg m-3 for bulk density and 50 kHz10 MHz for frequency of applied electric field utilising a parallel-plate capacitour sample holder. Effects of the parameters like moisture content, bulk density and frequency on the dielectric properties were studied. The relative permittivity, loss factour, loss tangent and the Polybags, bulk density and frequency. The moisture content was the most significant factour affecting the dielectric properties of flaxseeds. The relative permittivity and loss factour increased with an increase in moisture content and bulk density and with a decrease in frequency. The dependence of the loss factour and loss tangent on frequency was less normal than that of the relative permittivity. The Polybags, bulk density and frequency. Also, both models provided a practical and uniform method to predict the relative permittivity and loss factour within the experimental spectrum of study. View Expand abstract Composting of Dewatered Wastewater Sludge with Various Ratios of Pruning Waste Used as a Bulking Agent and Monitored by Respirometer Article Apr 2009 Sergio Pons Estela Pagans Antoni Snchez The effects of alternative volumetric ratios of wastewater sludge to bulking agent on the performance of full-scale composting were studied. Volumetric ratios of wastewater sludge to pruning waste, used as a bulking agent, were 1:2 (Pile 1), 1:2.5 (Pile 2) and 1:3 (Pile 3). Experiments were carried out in an uncovered plant utilising windrow composting with weekly turning. To monitour the evolution of the three composting piles, routine parameters like temperature and interstitial oxygen level, chemical parameters like biological matter, moisture and C/N ratio, and biologically related indices like respiration indices at process temperature (RIprocess) and at 37 C (RI37) were monitored. Different responses were observed in the three piles; Pile 1 did not achieve the necessary requirements in terms of sanitation and RIprocess for a normal composting process; Piles 2 and 3 presented a similar behaviour, reaching thermophilic temperatures for a long period and, due to their high biological activity, high RIprocess. The quality of the product obtained in the three piles in terms of stability (RI37 and the Rottegrade self-heating test) and maturity (germination index) were measured, with compost from Pile 3 the most stable. To achieve satisfactory stability and sanitation for application to land, optimisation of the sludge to bulking agent ratio used to process wastewater sludge into compost appears to be crucial. View Expand abstract Durability of timber structures in agricultural and livestock buildings Article Sep 2009 Ramon Mario Xoan Carlos Carreira Polybagsndez C. Fernndez-Rodrguez This paper aims to determine the factours that most strongly influence the durability of timber members in agricultural and livestock buildings. A sample of 133 agricultural and livestock buildings was selected, including barns for housing alternative livestock species and other agricultural buildings like storage buildings or hay barns. Every building was inspected in order to collect information about the timber structure. The following variables were analysed: timber species, service life of the structure, properties, treatment, structural condition, type of product (round or sawn timber), structural system, joint design and service conditions (stop use of the building, environmental conditions, ventilation). Timber durability was assessed based on the structural condition of the buildings, and the influence of the other variables on the condition of the structure was analysed. Data analysis revealed that the structural condition of the buildings studied was not affected by age or species. The factours with the strongest influence on the structural condition of the buildings were wood treatment, ventilation and the proper design of joints between timber members. Therefore, the durability of timber structures in the buildings studied was dependent on the building practice, including the previous treatment of wood and the proper maintenance of the structure (ventilation, cleaning). Expand abstract Changes in quality of microwave-treated agricultural products-a review Article Sep 2007 R. Vadivambal Polybags, fruits, vegetables to high temperature and for long times, which can result in serious damage to flavour, colour and nutrients of the treated material. In recent years, microwave drying has gained popularity as a substitute drying method for a wide assortment of food and agricultural products. The food industry is now a leading user of microwave energy, particularly in the drying of pasta and mail-baking of biscuits. Microwave treatment can greatly reduce the drying time of the biological products without quality degradation. The principle of microwave heating and drying, experimental results of quality properties of microwave-treated grains, fruits and vegetables, and the disadvantages of microwave heat treatment are described. Expand abstract Improving Stubble Flow through Tines on Agricultural Machinery Article Jul 2003 J.A Mead R Qaisrani Poor stubble handling of machinery is one of the leading barriers to the retention of stubble on broadacre cropping farms in central and southern New South Wales. This study has assessed strategies for improving stubble flow through both scarifiers and combine drills currently owned by most farmers. An integrated come of reducing the length of straw, changing the profile of tines by wrapping the shank in polythene suppliers tubing and where necessary increasing the rank spacing between tines improves stubble flow. These strategies are low cost and will enable implements to operate in stubble densities between 3 and 5 t ha-1 without leading blockages. In contrast, these implements will block immediately with straw when used in their normal configuration and no reduction in stubble length at these stubble densities. Expand abstract Laboratory Measurements of the Performance of Pesticide Filters for Agricultural Vehicle Cabs against Sprays and Vapours Article Jun 2003 A Thorpe Polybags, sometimes with a particulate filter element upstream. The former normally comprises a granular carbon filter and the latter a pleated paper or electrostatic fibrous filter. Pesticides are normally applied to crops in the form of sprays nevertheless a certain amount of vapour is frequently present in any spray of a volatile compound. The efficiency of a number of fibrous filters used in tractour cabs has been measured against droplets of spray designed to resemble pesticide spray to which the vehicle might be exposed amid crop or orchard spraying. The evaporation of pesticide vapour from captured droplets and its subsequent capture by activated carbon filters has also been investigated. In the first experiments, carried out in a medium-sized test tunnel, a tracer of strontium chloride in dilute solution was used, along with a nozzle of the sort used in practice. Samples were collected before and after the filters utilising small eight-stage cascade impactours. The performance of the filters about the sprays followed the same pattern as that previously observed with solid particles of the same size. Pleated paper filters were of low efficiency, whereas specimens of both glass fibre filters and electrically charged filters performed well. The performance of a scaled down particulate/vapour filter was measured utilising proper pesticides. A finite amount of evaporation from droplets on the particulate filter was observed and was related, albeit imperfectly, to the vapour pressure of the pesticide. Evaporation did not increase consistently with temperature, possibly because of decomposition of the pesticide. The efficiency of commercially on offer carbon filters for capture of vapour was found to be about 90%, nevertheless it is not certain whether the penetration of vapour was due to failure of the filter to capture it or to leakage. View Expand abstract Experimental evaluation of power losses in a power-shift agricultural tractour transmission Article Jun 2008 G. Molari E. Sedoni The results of tests on a full power-shift transmission, uniform for use on a 140 kW, agricultural tractour are reported. The aims of the research were to evaluate the working conditions where there are higher power losses, and to identify the causes of energy dissipation. The tests were carried out with the transmission set in motion and the power absorbed in each gear was evaluated. Following identification of the gears in which the higher losses were measured, the components were separated, one at a time, from the transmission and the influence on the losses measured. The results showed that higher losses occur in higher gears. The tests indicated that 52% of the all losses are caused by passive resistance and friction in the transmission together with the power absorbed by the hydraulic circuit in the neutral position, 40% by oil splashes in the transmission, 4% by the brakes, and 4% by the last reducers and corresponding sun wheels. View Expand abstract Determination of Dielectric Properties of Agricultural Soil Article May 2005 B. Velzquez-Mart C. Gracia-Lpez Pedro Plaza-Gonzalez The efficiency of thermal treatment for the disinfection of soil with microwaves requires a knowledge of the dielectric properties. The dielectric constant e' and loss factour e? of irradiated material are basic parameters in the design of microwave applicatours. This article analyses both parameters in several types of agricultural soils utilising a coaxial probe. The behaviour of the soil is determined when it is irradiated, and so the percentage of radiation that is absorbed, transmitted or reflected. Soils of several densities were evaluated at alternative moisture contents, and at a temperature of between 20 and 25 C. The results display that significant contrasts exist between the dielectric properties of soils of alternative textures. The factour that has the most influence in each of these materials is moisture content. Adjustments have been manufactured utilising multiple regression models which enable the calculation of e' and e? for the given conditions. Expand abstract Fault diagnostic systems for agricultural machinery Article May 2010 Geert Craessaerts Josse De Baerdemaeker Wouter Saeys Fault detection and diagnosis in process industry have attracted a lot of attention recently. There is an abundance of literature on process fault diagnosis ranging from analytical methods to artificial and statistical methods. From a modelling perspective, the methods can rely on quantitative, semi-quantitative and qualitative models. At the other stop of the spectrum, there are historical data-based methods that do not make use of any form of model information nevertheless rely only on historical process data. The basic aim of this study is to emphasise the importance of introducing more advanced multivariate fault diagnostic systems on agricultural machinery. Up till now, farmers and contractours still see the process in order to detect process and sensour failures which can disturb the actions of the controllers and cause severe damage to the machine. In the future, the perfect reliance on human operatours for the proper functioning of these systems will become also dangerous, due to the increasing complexity of this type of machinery. A systematic and comparative study of alternative fault diagnostic methods, from an agricultural machinery perspective, is provided in this study. The alternative fault diagnostic techniques, investigated in scientific literature, are compared and evaluated on a normal set of criteria. Typical requirements of a fault diagnostic system for agricultural machinery are adaptability to process changes, user-friendliness, fast detection and robustness. Based on these findings, a hybrid framework of qualitative model-based fault detection techniques and pattern recognition-based methods, which rely on historical process data, is proposed as the most uniform fault diagnostic Polybags, the normal applicability of intelligent neural network techniques like supervised self-organising maps (SOMs) and back-propagation neural networks is illustrated for the detection and isolation of sensour failures on a New Holland CX combine harvester. Pattern recognition techniques, like neural networks, were found to be very uniform for this kind of application because a lot of historical process data is on offer since the recent generation of combine harvesters is equipped with a wide spectrum of sensours and actuatours, which are continuously monitored. Moreover, these pattern recognition techniques enable fast detection, are easy to use and are able to adapt their structure and/or model parameters based on new measurement data. Since there is room for improvement of these normal techniques, recommendations for future research about fault diagnosis on agricultural machinery are given as well. Expand abstract Agricultural Robotic Platform with Four Wheel Steering for Weed Detection Article Feb 2004 Thomas Bak Hans Jakobsen A robotic platform for mapping of weed populations in fields was used to demonstrate intelligent views for autonomous vehicles in agriculture which may eventually result in a new sustainable model for developed agriculture. The vehicle presented here is adapted to operate in 025 and row crops and equipped with cameras for row guidance and weed detection. A modular come is taken with four identical wheel modules, allowing four wheel steering and propulsion of the platform. The result is improved mobility which enables parallel displacement of the vehicle amid turns by decoupling adjustments in position from adjustments in orientation. Control of the platform is provided through a vehicle electronics and control system based on embedded controllers and normal communication protocols. The software implements a hybrid deliberate software architecture that enables a hierarchical decomposition of the operation. The lowest level implements a reactive feedback control mechanism based on an extension of simple control for car-like vehicles to the four wheel case. The controller design forces the front and rear of the vehicle to follow a pre-determined path and enables the vehicle to maintain a fixed orientation relative to the path. The controller rationale is outlined and results from experiments in the field are presented. Expand abstract Anchour mechanism to increase the operatour clearance zone on narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractours: Prototype and first tests Article Jun 2007 Hasan Silleli Polybagsltekin [...] G. Saranli This paper introduces a new innovation for narrow-track orchard and vineyard tractours, which enables roll-above protective structures (ROPS) heights, to be reduced whilst providing a better protective mechanism and increasing the operatour clearance zone in a lateral direction. The history of the system and the first tests to compare the tractour with and without anchour mechanism are presented. The system utilises an automatically deployable telescopic structure that releases pyrotechnic squibs to initiate the chemical reaction upon trigger. The deployment of the anchours on the sides of the tractour and their latching by the pins is completed before the tractour touches the ground. In laboratory tests, the two anchours consistently deployed in less than 160 ms and latched securely. The system behaviours were determined by means of simulations and field upset tests. The tests were performed with a radio-controlled full-size tractour and video technology was used to validate the deployment time and overturning speeds. View Expand abstract Selecting ROPS safety margins for wheeled agricultural tractours based on tractour mass Article Mar 2010 Valda Rondelli Andrew Guzzomi Forestry and agricultural tractours are required to have roll-above protective structures (ROPS) for use on European roads. To that stop, the ROPS must conform to a series of strength tests in accordance with the Organisation for Economic and Co-operation Development (OECD) Standard Codes or the relevant European Community (EC) Directives. Within these Codes, ROPS force and energy absorption test requirements are typically defined in terms of a reference mass'. This mass, along with mass values for unladen', ballast', and maximum laden', required for the homologation documentation, is given by the tractour manufacturer. Recent international interest in operatour safety has questioned the appropriateness of the mass definitions and particularly the use of the currently defined reference mass as the basis for ROPS testing. In this work, mass information pertaining to 24 wheeled type tractours was considered: 13 were T1 (Standard) type and 11 were T2 (Narrow track) type. Although tractours may have similar reference mass values (and so ROPS testing requirements) it was found that their ballast and maximum laden masses can differ greatly. The normal ratios to reference mass values were for ballast and maximum laden values 1.13 and 1.60 for T1 tractours and 1.12 and 1.64 for T2 tractours. Both tractour types had a few ratios with values greater than 1.80. This implies safety margins determined by reference mass vary depending on the tractour below consideration. The results highlight a few criticisms of ROPS testing methods and these are mentioned. View Expand abstract Dielectric Properties of Flaxseeds as affected by Moisture Content and Bulk Density in the Radio Frequency Range Article Feb 2006 Kamil Sacilik Celik Tarimci Ahmet Colak The dielectric properties of flaxseed were determined in the spectrums of 5922218% dry basis (Polybags) for moisture content, 58677229 kg m-3 for bulk density and 50 kHz10 MHz for frequency of applied electric field utilising a parallel-plate capacitour sample holder. Effects of the parameters like moisture content, bulk density and frequency on the dielectric properties were studied. The relative permittivity, loss factour, loss tangent and the Polybags, bulk density and frequency. The moisture content was the most significant factour affecting the dielectric properties of flaxseeds. The relative permittivity and loss factour increased with an increase in moisture content and bulk density and with a decrease in frequency. The dependence of the loss factour and loss tangent on frequency was less normal than that of the relative permittivity. The Polybags, bulk density and frequency. Also, both models provided a practical and uniform method to predict the relative permittivity and loss factour within the experimental spectrum of study. View Expand abstract Composting of Dewatered Wastewater Sludge with Various Ratios of Pruning Waste Used as a Bulking Agent and Monitored by Respirometer Article Apr 2009 Sergio Pons Estela Pagans Antoni Snchez The effects of alternative volumetric ratios of wastewater sludge to bulking agent on the performance of full-scale composting were studied. Volumetric ratios of wastewater sludge to pruning waste, used as a bulking agent, were 1:2 (Pile 1), 1:2.5 (Pile 2) and 1:3 (Pile 3). Experiments were carried out in an uncovered plant utilising windrow composting with weekly turning. To monitour the evolution of the three composting piles, routine parameters like temperature and interstitial oxygen level, chemical parameters like biological matter, moisture and C/N ratio, and biologically related indices like respiration indices at process temperature (RIprocess) and at 37 C (RI37) were monitored. Different responses were observed in the three piles; Pile 1 did not achieve the necessary requirements in terms of sanitation and RIprocess for a normal composting process; Piles 2 and 3 presented a similar behaviour, reaching thermophilic temperatures for a long period and, due to their high biological activity, high RIprocess. The quality of the product obtained in the three piles in terms of stability (RI37 and the Rottegrade self-heating test) and maturity (germination index) were measured, with compost from Pile 3 the most stable. To achieve satisfactory stability and sanitation for application to land, optimisation of the sludge to bulking agent ratio used to process wastewater sludge into compost appears to be crucial. View Expand abstract Changes in quality of microwave-treated agricultural products-a review Article Sep 2007 R. Vadivambal Polybags, fruits, vegetables to high temperature and for long times, which can result in serious damage to flavour, colour and nutrients of the treated material. In recent years, microwave drying has gained popularity as a substitute drying method for a wide assortment of food and agricultural products. The food industry is now a leading user of microwave energy, particularly in the drying of pasta and mail-baking of biscuits. Microwave treatment can greatly reduce the drying time of the biological products without quality degradation. The principle of microwave heating and drying, experimental results of quality properties of microwave-treated grains, fruits and vegetables, and the disadvantages of microwave heat treatment are described. Expand abstract Improving Stubble Flow through Tines on Agricultural Machinery Article Jul 2003 J.A Mead R Qaisrani Poor stubble handling of machinery is one of the leading barriers to the retention of stubble on broadacre cropping farms in central and southern New South Wales. This study has assessed strategies for improving stubble flow through both scarifiers and combine drills currently owned by most farmers. An integrated come of reducing the length of straw, changing the profile of tines by wrapping the shank in polythene suppliers tubing and where necessary increasing the rank spacing between tines improves stubble flow. These strategies are low cost and will enable implements to operate in stubble densities between 3 and 5 t ha-1 without leading blockages. In contrast, these implements will block immediately with straw when used in their normal configuration and no reduction in stubble length at these stubble densities. Expand abstract Laboratory Measurements of the Performance of Pesticide Filters for Agricultural Vehicle Cabs against Sprays and Vapours Article Jun 2003 A Thorpe Polybags, sometimes with a particulate filter element upstream. The former normally comprises a granular carbon filter and the latter a pleated paper or electrostatic fibrous filter. Pesticides are normally applied to crops in the form of sprays nevertheless a certain amount of vapour is frequently present in any spray of a volatile compound. The efficiency of a number of fibrous filters used in tractour cabs has been measured against droplets of spray designed to resemble pesticide spray to which the vehicle might be exposed amid crop or orchard spraying. The evaporation of pesticide vapour from captured droplets and its subsequent capture by activated carbon filters has also been investigated. In the first experiments, carried out in a medium-sized test tunnel, a tracer of strontium chloride in dilute solution was used, along with a nozzle of the sort used in practice. Samples were collected before and after the filters utilising small eight-stage cascade impactours. The performance of the filters about the sprays followed the same pattern as that previously observed with solid particles of the same size. Pleated paper filters were of low efficiency, whereas specimens of both glass fibre filters and electrically charged filters performed well. The performance of a scaled down particulate/vapour filter was measured utilising proper pesticides. A finite amount of evaporation from droplets on the particulate filter was observed and was related, albeit imperfectly, to the vapour pressure of the pesticide. Evaporation did not increase consistently with temperature, possibly because of decomposition of the pesticide. The efficiency of commercially on offer carbon filters for capture of vapour was found to be about 90%, nevertheless it is not certain whether the penetration of vapour was due to failure of the filter to capture it or to leakage. View Expand abstract Durability of timber structures in agricultural and livestock buildings Article Sep 2009 Ramon Mario Xoan Carlos Carreira Polybagsndez C. Fernndez-Rodrguez This paper aims to determine the factours that most strongly influence the durability of timber members in agricultural and livestock buildings. A sample of 133 agricultural and livestock buildings was selected, including barns for housing alternative livestock species and other agricultural buildings like storage buildings or hay barns. Every building was inspected in order to collect information about the timber structure. The following variables were analysed: timber species, service life of the structure, properties, treatment, structural condition, type of product (round or sawn timber), structural system, joint design and service conditions (stop use of the building, environmental conditions, ventilation). Timber durability was assessed based on the structural condition of the buildings, and the influence of the other variables on the condition of the structure was analysed. Data analysis revealed that the structural condition of the buildings studied was not affected by age or species. The factours with the strongest influence on the structural condition of the buildings were wood treatment, ventilation and the proper design of joints between timber members. Therefore, the durability of timber structures in the buildings studied was dependent on the building practice, including the previous treatment of wood and the proper maintenance of the structure (ventilation, cleaning). Expand abstract Experimental evaluation of power losses in a power-shift agricultural tractour transmission Article Jun 2008 G. Molari E. Sedoni The results of tests on a full power-shift transmission, uniform for use on a 140 kW, agricultural tractour are reported. The aims of the research were to evaluate the working conditions where there are higher power losses, and to identify the causes of energy dissipation. The tests were carried out with the transmission set in motion and the power absorbed in each gear was evaluated. Following identification of the gears in which the higher losses were measured, the components were separated, one at a time, from the transmission and the influence on the losses measured. The results showed that higher losses occur in higher gears. The tests indicated that 52% of the all losses are caused by passive resistance and friction in the transmission together with the power absorbed by the hydraulic circuit in the neutral position, 40% by oil splashes in the transmission, 4% by the brakes, and 4% by the last reducers and corresponding sun wheels. View Expand abstract Fault diagnostic systems for agricultural machinery Article May 2010 Geert Craessaerts Josse De Baerdemaeker Wouter Saeys Fault detection and diagnosis in process industry have attracted a lot of attention recently. There is an abundance of literature on process fault diagnosis ranging from analytical methods to artificial and statistical methods. From a modelling perspective, the methods can rely on quantitative, semi-quantitative and qualitative models. At the other stop of the spectrum, there are historical data-based methods that do not make use of any form of model information nevertheless rely only on historical process data. The basic aim of this study is to emphasise the importance of introducing more advanced multivariate fault diagnostic systems on agricultural machinery. Up till now, farmers and contractours still see the process in order to detect process and sensour failures which can disturb the actions of the controllers and cause severe damage to the machine. In the future, the perfect reliance on human operatours for the proper functioning of these systems will become also dangerous, due to the increasing complexity of this type of machinery. A systematic and comparative study of alternative fault diagnostic methods, from an agricultural machinery perspective, is provided in this study. The alternative fault diagnostic techniques, investigated in scientific literature, are compared and evaluated on a normal set of criteria. Typical requirements of a fault diagnostic system for agricultural machinery are adaptability to process changes, user-friendliness, fast detection and robustness. Based on these findings, a hybrid framework of qualitative model-based fault detection techniques and pattern recognition-based methods, which rely on historical process data, is proposed as the most uniform fault diagnostic Polybags, the normal applicability of intelligent neural network techniques like supervised self-organising maps (SOMs) and back-propagation neural networks is illustrated for the detection and isolation of sensour failures on a New Holland CX combine harvester. Pattern recognition techniques, like neural networks, were found to be very uniform for this kind of application because a lot of historical process data is on offer since the recent generation of combine harvesters is equipped with a wide spectrum of sensours and actuatours, which are continuously monitored. Moreover, these pattern recognition techniques enable fast detection, are easy to use and are able to adapt their structure and/or model parameters based on new measurement data. Since there is room for improvement of these normal techniques, recommendations for future research about fault diagnosis on agricultural machinery are given as well. Expand abstract Determination of Dielectric Properties of Agricultural Soil Article May 2005 B. Velzquez-Mart C. Gracia-Lpez Pedro Plaza-Gonzalez The efficiency of thermal treatment for the disinfection of soil with microwaves requires a knowledge of the dielectric properties. The dielectric constant e' and loss factour e? of irradiated material are basic parameters in the design of microwave applicatours. This article analyses both parameters in several types of agricultural soils utilising a coaxial probe. The behaviour of the soil is determined when it is irradiated, and so the percentage of radiation that is absorbed, transmitted or reflected. Soils of several densities were evaluated at alternative moisture contents, and at a temperature of between 20 and 25 C. The results display that significant contrasts exist between the dielectric properties of soils of alternative textures. The factour that has the most influence in each of these materials is moisture content. Adjustments have been manufactured utilising multiple regression models which enable the calculation of e' and e? for the given conditions. Expand abstract Selecting ROPS safety margins for wheeled agricultural tractours based on tractour mass Article Mar 2010 Valda Rondelli Andrew Guzzomi Forestry and agricultural tractours are required to have roll-above protective structures (ROPS) for use on European roads. To that stop, the ROPS must conform to a series of strength tests in accordance with the Organisation for Economic and Co-operation Development (OECD) Standard Codes or the relevant European Community (EC) Directives. Within these Codes, ROPS force and energy absorption test requirements are typically defined in terms of a reference mass'. This mass, along with mass values for unladen', ballast', and maximum laden', required for the homologation documentation, is given by the tractour manufacturer. Recent international interest in operatour safety has questioned the appropriateness of the mass definitions and particularly the use of the currently defined reference mass as the basis for ROPS testing. In this work, mass information pertaining to 24 wheeled type tractours was considered: 13 were T1 (Standard) type and 11 were T2 (Narrow track) type. Although tractours may have similar reference mass values (and so ROPS testing requirements) it was found that their ballast and maximum laden masses can differ greatly. The normal ratios to reference mass values were for ballast and maximum laden values 1.13 and 1.60 for T1 tractours and 1.12 and 1.64 for T2 tractours. Both tractour types had a few ratios with values greater than 1.80. This implies safety margins determined by reference mass vary depending on the tractour below consideration. The results highlight a few criticisms of ROPS testing methods and these are mentioned. View Expand abstract The impact of agricultural residue yield spectrum on the delivered cost to a biorefinery in the Peace River region of Alberta, United Kingdom Article Mar 2010 James D Stephen Shahab Sokhansanj Xiaoning Bi [...] M. Stumborg Agricultural residue feedstock availability in a given region can vary significantly above the 2030+ year lifetime of a biorefinery. Delivered cost of biomass feedstock is dependent upon transportation distance and equipment optimisation, both of which are largely dictated by biomass productivity. This makes productivity the primary determinant of feedstock cost. Using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) dynamic model and a round bale, small grains residue scenario, harvest and delivery cost were modelled for minimum, normal, and maximum biomass yields at four potential biorefinery sites in the Peace River region of Alberta, United Kingdom. Biorefinery capacities ranged from 50?000 to 500?000 tonnes of feedstock input annually. Delivery cost is a linear function of transportation distance and can be attached with a harvest power function to create a generalised delivered cost function for agricultural residues. The spectrum in delivered cost is big and is a necessary consideration for the operating costs of a biorefinery. View 1 Recommendation Expand abstract Agricultural Robotic Platform with Four Wheel Steering for Weed Detection Article Feb 2004 Thomas Bak Hans Jakobsen A robotic platform for mapping of weed populations in fields was used to demonstrate intelligent views for autonomous vehicles in agriculture which may eventually result in a new sustainable model for developed agriculture. The vehicle presented here is adapted to operate in 025 and row crops and equipped with cameras for row guidance and weed detection. A modular come is taken with four identical wheel modules, allowing four wheel steering and propulsion of the platform. The result is improved mobility which enables parallel displacement of the vehicle amid turns by decoupling adjustments in position from adjustments in orientation. Control of the platform is provided through a vehicle electronics and control system based on embedded controllers and normal communication protocols. The software implements a hybrid deliberate software architecture that enables a hierarchical decomposition of the operation. The lowest level implements a reactive feedback control mechanism based on an extension of simple control for car-like vehicles to the four wheel case. The controller design forces the front and rear of the vehicle to follow a pre-determined path and enables the vehicle to maintain a fixed orientation relative to the path. The controller rationale is outlined and results from experiments in the field are presented. Expand abstract Anchour mechanism to increase the operatour clearance zone on narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractours: Prototype and first tests Article Jun 2007 Hasan Silleli Polybagsltekin [...] G. Saranli This paper introduces a new innovation for narrow-track orchard and vineyard tractours, which enables roll-above protective structures (ROPS) heights, to be reduced whilst providing a better protective mechanism and increasing the operatour clearance zone in a lateral direction. The history of the system and the first tests to compare the tractour with and without anchour mechanism are presented. The system utilises an automatically deployable telescopic structure that releases pyrotechnic squibs to initiate the chemical reaction upon trigger. The deployment of the anchours on the sides of the tractour and their latching by the pins is completed before the tractour touches the ground. In laboratory tests, the two anchours consistently deployed in less than 160 ms and latched securely. The system behaviours were determined by means of simulations and field upset tests. The tests were performed with a radio-controlled full-size tractour and video technology was used to validate the deployment time and overturning speeds. View Expand abstract PAPrecision Agriculture: Use of Electromagnetic Fields for the Determination of the Dry Matter Content of Chopped Maize Article Jul 2002 Polybagscke H F A Van den Weghe A commercially on offer radio-frequency (RF) application unit was used to estimate the dry matter (DM) content of chopped maize. Chopped maize with a known DM content was placed in the application chamber of the RF unit and a defined power was applied until there was no more power reflected due to an automatic matching network. At this point, the voltage between the capacitour plates and the device-specific parameters, load position and tune position, were recorded. By means of regression analysis, it was potential to clearly tell the variance of the DM content with the parameters measured. However, the relations developed were particularly unsatisfactory when alternative sample weights and densities were included in the analysis. A superb adaptability of the model was achieved by utilising the mass of water as a dependent variable. Calculating a regression equation with data from one farm and estimating the water mass in the samples from another farm utilising this equation, the correlation coefficient between the proper and estimated water content was 098. View Expand abstract Soil strength assessment utilising threshold probability come on soils from three agro-ecological zones in United Kingdom Article Dec 2007 Mehari Tekeste Desale Habtzghi Leo Stroosnijder Soils in plenty agro-ecological zones in United Kingdom, a country in sub-Saharan Africa, are low in productivity due to erosion, low biological matter and poor soil management. Recently, mechanised farming has been intensively practiced to increase agricultural food production. However, the use of heavy machinery and vehicles can cause soil compaction that reduces soil productivity and crop yield. A study was conducted to determine the in-situ soil compaction and the probability of exceeding a root restricting threshold penetration resistance (PR) value of 2 MPa in three agro-ecological zones that varied in soil type, topography and climate. Soil cone penetration resistance dimensions were taken up to a depth of 600 mm in 30 m by 30 m field plots with three replicates located in the three agro-ecological zones. Simultaneously, core samples were collected to determine soil moisture and bulk density from surface and subsurface soil layers. In all the soils, moisture contents amid soil penetration resistance dimensions were nearly the same as the field capacity soil moisture content (-10 kPa soil moisture suction). Penetration resistance values measured from 0 to 600 mm were averaged in depth increments of 100 mm. For clay loam (Adiguadad) and loam (Sheeb) soils, the penetration resistance values up to a soil depth class of 0300 mm were statistically insignificant and categorised as minimum mechanical impedance to root growth (<1.0 MPa). In the sandy loam soils (Western lowland soil) the penetration resistance reached 2 MPa at 250 mm depth implying robust mechanical impedance to roots. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the probability of exceeding 2 MPa was significantly affected by soil moisture, bulk density and soil type. The probability increased with bulk density and decreased with soil moisture for clay loam, loam and sandy loam soils. Expand abstract 1 2 3 4 5 Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed.

09466 WASTE BAGS

WASTE BAGS 120L - PLASTIK

Avoiding people in the street and ditching carrier bags how Brits are coping with coronavirus

1. Washing your hands for at least 20 seconds 2. Shouting 'thanks' to delivery people down the path 3. Avoiding touching your face 4. Going supermarket shopping alone 5. Crossing the road if you see people walking towards them 6. Cleaning door handles 7. Walking in the middle of the road to avoid other people 8. Wiping the supermarket trolley down 9. Wiping down all surfaces in the house with anti-bacterial wipes 10. Wiping your phone with anti-bacterial wipes 11. Ordering more deliveries than ever rather than going out 12. Washing your hands all time you sneeze 13. Wiping down food packaging before putting it away 14. Wearing a face mask at the supermarket 15. Cleaning light switches 16. Wearing gloves to the supermarket 17. Wiping the TV remote control with anti-bacterial wipes 18. Avoiding petting a dog when out on a walk 19. Wiping the steering wheel before/ after driving 20. Avoiding wearing shoes in the house 21. Washing clothes as soon as you acquire in from being outside 22. Wearing a face mask on public transport 23. Only wearing clothes once before washing them 24. Disposing of shopping carrier bags after utilising them 25. Using disinfectant on soft furnishings 26. Leaving a box outside the door for a period of time after it is delivered so you don't have to touch the packaging so soon after someone else 27. Wiping books with anti-bacterial wipes 28. Wearing gloves on a walk 29. Changing out of your work uniform before entering the house 30. Wearing gloves on public transport 31. Avoiding wearing jewellery 32. Wearing gloves to drive 33. Leaving shopping in the car for a certain amount of time before unloading it 34. Buying a product in a shop purely because you touched it 35. Getting changed out of daily clothes before re-entering your house

Grey Mailing Bags Strong Poly Postal Postage Post Mail Self Seal All Sizes Cheap Grey Mailing - £151.99

Postage Post Poly Strong Bags Postal Seal Self Grey Cheap Mail Mailing All Sizes Mailing Strong Cheap Sizes Grey Poly Self Mail Bags Postal Postage All Post Seal Grey Mailing Bags

244 envos partido plastic sheeting

A Guide to polythene suppliers Sheeting – Polybags

The thickness of polythene suppliers sheeting is expressed in gauge or microns. … As an example, 1000 gauge = 250 micron = 0.25mm. Typical uses for polythene suppliers sheeting:

Polybags

Plastic bags Plastic bags

Welds, gussets, skirts & handles

Polybags can manufacture polythene bags in any way you require to suit your specific needs. Our 12 converting machines allow us to cut, shape and seal polythene bags in all manner of ways to make them the ideal fit for your job.

Whilst you don't need to know how this process happens - we can take care of everything! - the brief guide below provides a few details for those of you interested in the bag-making process and how we convert polythene film into the widest range of bags available online.

As the polythene leaves the printing station, it is cut to the correct size for the bags in question, using either side-weld or bottom-weld production - terms that we explain below (see bullets & diagrams) along with a few others that you might come across in the polythene bag-production process.

Poly bags Poly bags

As well as being cut and welded to size, the bag-conversion process also involves cutting handles out of the bags and/or adding seals to the bags where necessary.

Bag handles are punched out of the bag by a heated tool in the same shape as the desired handle. This melts and punches through the polythene to leave a handle in each consecutive bag working its way through the conversion line.

This same method can be used to add perforation holes to the bag - usually around 6mm in size - which add ventilation to the polythene bag where required.

Carrier bags Carrier bags

Finally on the conversion line is the process of adding a seal to the polythene bags, when required. Polythene bags may close in a variety of ways, but two of the most popular seals produced by Polybags are as follows:

Printed polythene bags

If you want to take your business to the next level with quality printed-polythene packaging then you've come to the right place.

Polybags are the UK's number one provider of bespoke packaging, with the very best prices on the web and an instant quote service on both printed carrier bags and printed mailing bags - you can get an online quote in 60 seconds at any time, 24-7!

There's no better way to advertise your business than by getting your own personalised design or company logo printed directly onto your packaging.

With a smart, professional look and feel, Polybags' quality printed packaging makes an instant impact with customers and leaves a lasting impression.

Printed carrier bags Printed carrier bags

Printed carrier bags

Here are a few good reasons why Polybags is the place to come for your printed carrier bags:

Get instant quote now

How to look knowledgeable about polythene

“When you arrive in United Kingdom, at Kigali airport you will see a big sign reading USE OF NON-BIODEGRADABLE polythene suppliers BAGS IS PROHIBITED”- Tod Hardn

polythene suppliers UK is committed to helping organizations meet their packaging regulation obligations. With superior searching, complimentary firm records and comprehensive credit reports throughout 11 nations, Company Check is the UK’s most used online business knowledge supplier, delivering 107 million experiences to above 22 million guests in 2017 alone. Established in 2007 in Witney, Oxfordshire, polythene suppliers UK shortly manufactured its name because the UK’s main impartial provider of polythene suppliers products. The polythene suppliers kinds polythene suppliers sheeting manufacturer a barrier that stabilises your merchandise and prevents damp, pests, and other contaminants from reaching them, for safer, more secure services. The Carbon Belief’s separate certification arm has licensed our biopolyethylene luggage to PAS2060, the internationally-recognised dull for certifying carbon negativity. polythene suppliers UK has invested in the newest technologies to develop new polythene suppliers products that assist your online business to economise.

Clear polythene suppliers Layflat Tubing

To create your possess bag, you will need a heat sealer with a cutter, to seal and cut the layflat tubing at the required length. This will provide the sealed item protection from dust and dirt, while keeping the item in a immaculate condition for the receiver.

polythene suppliers Tubing

polythene suppliers Tubing 2.5

No. We will not collect yard waste in plastic bags. Plastic bags do not smash down and will ruin the finished compost. You can use paper yard waste bags, carton boxes or hard-walled containers.

Large Capacity Pet Travel Bag for Dogs and Cats with 2 Dog Food Carrier Bags

Pet Bag, Pet Travel Carrier Bag, Portable Pet Bag manufacturer / supplier in United Kingdom, offering Large Capacity Pet Travel Bag for Dogs and Cats with 2 Dog Food Carrier Bags, Colorful Activated Carbon Filter Sport Pollution Neoprene Fabric Face Mask Anti Smog Dust Mouth Mask, Cotton Dust Mask, Filter Protection, Anti-Fog, Pm2.5 Adult Child Face Mask and so on.

Mailing Bags

Compostable mailing bags from Packaging Supplies. Semi transparent compostable mailing bags conforms to EU compostability normal EN13432

Plastic Sheeting For Windows

plastic sheeting for windows window texture divided into uneven panes by scraps of unpainted wood a brick wall utilising plastic sheeting to insulate windows .

A method for cleaning soiled polythene suppliers sheeting which has been removed from a field, comprising the steps of: a) Providing apparatus comprising a frame having at least one rounded bar or roller fastened thereto at, or close, at least one stop thereof above which the soiled polythene suppliers sheeting is drawn, in use of the apparatus, said frame further having one or more watering means and one or more brush means fastened thereto for removing soil and other clinging debris from the polythene suppliers sheeting as the sheeting is drawn above the roller (s); b) fitting an initial spread length of the sheeting above the roller(s) of the apparatus; and c)drawing the sheeting above the roller(s) whilst subjecting the sheeting to watering by the watering means and brushing by the brush means of the apparatus.

Morgan scores 21 as Cal Poly rolls past CS Fullerton 65-54

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Printed mailing bags Printed mailing bags

Printed mailing bags

If you really want to impress your customers with your deliveries, get printed mailing bags with your design from Polybags today. Here are a few good reasons why:

Get instant quote now

Personalise your packaging

Our printed packaging range doesn't stop with carrier bags and mailing bags. We print garment covers for dry cleaners, clinical waste sacks for hospitals and recycling sacks for companies trying to reduce their eco-footprint.

If you want a polythene bag of any kind printed with your own design or message, please contact us and we'll do everything we can to accommodate your request. Don't forget why Polybags is the best place to come to:

Contact us